Fact-checking reduces belief in misinformation and leaves a more enduring mental imprint than false claims, according to a new study published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. The study shows fact-checking is an effective tool to combat misinformation across countries, cultures and political environments.
“While previous research has shown that factual corrections reduce false beliefs, even on politically charged topics, we’ve had precious little evidence about how fact-checks work globally,” Ethan Porter, assistant professor of media and public affairs at the George Washington University, said. “This study makes clear that fact-checks can reduce false beliefs against misinformation around the world, and that the reductions persist for some time.”
Porter, who is also affiliated with GW’s Institute for Data, Democracy and Politics, and Thomas Wood, a political science professor at the Ohio State University, examined 22 fact-checks conducted simultaneously in Argentina, Nigeria, South Africa, and the United Kingdom in September and October 2020.
The research team partnered with fact-checking organizations operating in the countries where the experiments took place, with participants randomly assigned to see fact-checks and then queried about their factual beliefs. The researchers investigated a broad array of topics, including COVID-19, local politics, crime and the economy. According to the study, fact-checks significantly reduced belief in the false claims, while exposure to misinformation only minimally increased belief in the falsehoods.
Survey participants who were presented with fact-checks often retained factual information for some time. Participants were still affected by the facts originally presented to them approximately two weeks after taking part in the initial experiment. Fact-checking generally increased accurate beliefs regardless of political affiliation, a trend that held firm even if the misinformation topic was politically salient. For example, fact-checks about the COVID-19 pandemic and climate change increased accuracy in all countries.
Noko Makgato, Africa Check’s executive director, said: “Nearly two years in the Covid-19 pandemic, this study reinforces the importance of the work done by fact-checkers around the world. Fact-checking doesn’t just help people know if something is correct or incorrect. It arms them with accurate, evidence-based information that they can rely on in the future.”
“Throughout the pandemic we saw bad information threaten lives,” Will Moy, chief executive of Full Fact, said. “This study shows the difference fact-checkers can make. As a result of their work, more people around the world are able to recognise false claims and make decisions based on good, reliable information.”
While the deliberate spread of false information is a global problem, most studies measuring the effectiveness of fact-checking focus on single-country experiments conducted in North America, Europe, or Australia. By carrying out simultaneous experiments in four countries located in three continents, this study demonstrates that fact-checking is also a potent tool against misinformation in countries with different political issues, economic situations, and ethnic compositions.
The research team partnered with fact-checking organizations operating in the countries where the experiments took place, such as Full Fact (United Kingdom), Africa Check (Nigeria and South Africa), and Chequeado (Argentina). Fieldwork and data collection were handled by Ipsos MORI and YouGov.
Notes to editors
1. Publication details
The study, “The Global Effectiveness of Fact-Checking: Evidence from Simultaneous Experiments in Argentina, Nigeria, South Africa, and the U.K.” was published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.
2. Project background
This project was started by Full Fact, with funding from Luminate and the George Washington University Institute for Data, Democracy and Politics
Kate Wilkinson (Africa Check): [email protected]
Ross Haig (Full Fact): [email protected]
Danny Parra (George Washington University): [email protected]